This paper is relevant to the impact areas in the following areas:
|Traits:||Insect Res. (BT), Insect Resistance|
|Tags:||Chrysoperla, non-target effects, risk assessment|
Abstract or Summary
Transgenic Bt cotton with genes from soil inhabiting spore forming bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner produces δ-endotoxin for the control of lepidopteran insects. The prey-mediated effects of Cry protein on the third trophic level is the most realistic exposure pathway that needs to be addressed as an important component of environment risk assessment. The green lacewing, Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi (Esben-Petersen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is the most important generalist predator in the cotton ecosystem in India. The tri-trophic interactions involving Bt cotton expressing single (Cry1Ac) and dual toxins (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab) fed herbivores, i.e. mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, whitefly Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) and leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttulla (Ishida) on the fitness of C. zastrowi sillemi, were studied. The development, survival and body weight of C. zastrowi sillemi had no deleterious effect as there were insignificant differences in any of the studied fitness parameters regardless of having consumed prey fed on Bollgard, Bollgard II and non-Btcotton plants. The feeding potential of C. zastrowi sillemi on mealybug was also not different on Bt or non-Bt cotton plants. ELISA studies confirmed the presence of Cry proteins in Btcotton leaves; however, no Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab protein was detected in prey herbivores (P. solenopsis, B. tabaci and A. biguttula biguttula) or in the predator C. zastrowi sillemi. It could be concluded that transgenic cotton that expresses single (Cry1Ac) or dual (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab) toxins had no apparent effect on the fitness of the predator through its preys P. solenopsis, B. tabaci and A. biguttula biguttulla.
Impact of Bt cotton expressing single (Cry1Ac) and dual toxins (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab) on the fitness of the predator Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi (Esben-Petersen): prey-mediated tri-trophic analysis (held on an external server, and so may require additional authentication details)
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