The annual global hectarage of biotech crops peaked at 181million in 2014 compared to 180 million hectares in 2015 with 17 to 18 million farmers in 28 countries. Around 90% of those planting biotech crops were small farmers. An unprecedented cumulative hectarage of 2 billion hectares of biotech crops, equivalent to twice the total landmass of China (956 million hectares) or the United States (937 million hectares), were successfully cultivated globally in the 20-year period 1996 to 2015; farmer benefits for the period 1996 to 2015 were estimated at over US$150 billion. The 2.0 billion accumulated hectares comprise 1.0 billion hectares of biotech soybean, 0.6 billion hectares of biotech maize, 0.3 billion hectares of biotech cotton and 0.1 billion hectares of biotech canola.

The latest data for 1996 to 2014 showed that biotech crops contributed to Food Security, Sustainability and Climate Change by: increasing crop production valued at US$150 billion; providing a better environment, by saving 583.5 million kg a.i. of pesticides in 1996-2014; in 2014 alone reducing CO2 emissions by 27 billion kg, equivalent to taking 12 million cars off the road for one year; conserving biodiversity in the period 1996-2014 by saving 152 million hectares of land (Brookes and Barfoot, 2016); and helped alleviate poverty by helping up to 16.5 million small farmers, and their families totaling >65 million people, who are some of the poorest people in the world. Biotech crops can increase productivity and income significantly and hence, can serve as an engine of rural economic growth that can contribute to the alleviation of poverty for the world’s small and resource-poor farmers. Biotech crops can contribute to a “sustainable intensification” strategy favored by many Academies of Science worldwide, which allows productivity/production to be increased only on the current 1.5 billion hectares of global cropland, thereby saving forests and biodiversity. Biotech crops are essential but are not a panacea and adherence to good farming practices, such as rotations and resistance management for insects, pathogens and weeds, are a must for biotech crops as they are for conventional crops.

References

James C., Global status of Commercialized biotech/GM Crops: 2015, ISAAA Brief No. 51-2015

Documents listed in this category provide a general overview of the impacts of agricultural biotechnology, often covering multiple impact areas, crops, traits or countries.

This database contains 193 scientific studies providing an overview of the impacts of agricultural biotechnology.

  1. Characterization of scientific studies usually cited as evidence of adverse effects of GM food/feed.
    , (2017)
  2. Assessing the potential economic benefits to farmers from various GM crops becoming available in the European Union by 2025: Results from an expert survey
    , , , (2017)
  3. Transgenic Strategies for Enhancement of Nematode Resistance in Plants
    , , , , , (2017)
  4. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996–2015: Impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions
    , (2017)
  5. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2016
    (2017)
  6. The social and economic impact of biofortification through genetic modification
    , , , (2017)
  7. The Socio-economic Impacts of GM Cotton in Burkina Faso: Does Farm Structure Affect How Benefits are Distributed?
    , , (2016)
  8. Evaluation of Economic, Land Use, and Land-use Emission Impacts of Substituting Non-GMO Crops for GMO in the United States
    , , , (2016)
  9. Does Bt rice pose risks to non-target arthropods? Results of a meta-analysis in China
    , , , , , , , , (2017)
  10. The success story of Bt cotton in Burkina Faso: a role model for sustainable cotton production in other cotton-growing countries?
    , , , (2016)
  11. Do genetically modified plants affect adversely on soil microbial communities?
    , , , , , (2016)
  12. Genetically modified organisms: a solution to food security and environment
    , (2016)
  13. The Adoption of Genetically Engineered Alfalfa, Canola and Sugarbeets in the United States
    , , (2016)
  14. The Future of Genetically Modified Crops: Reflections on the NAS Report
    (2016)
  15. The socioeconomics of genetically modified biofortified crops: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    , , , , (2016)
  16. Twenty Years of GM crops in Argentine Agriculture
    (2016)
  17. Bt cotton in India, pesticide use and environmental impact in India
    (2016)
  18. Biotechnology: A Growing Field in the Developing World
    (2016)
  19. Agricultural biotechnology and crop productivity: macro-level evidences on contribution of Bt cotton in India
    , (2016)
  20. Development and Adoption of Bt Cotton in India : Economic, Environmental and Health Issues
    , (2016)
  21. GMOs and the issue of coexistence in Italy
    (2016)
  22. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects (2016)
    (2016)
  23. The Adoption and Impact of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops in Australia: 20 years’ experience
    (2016)
  24. Success of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Fiction or reality?
    , , , , , , , , , (2016)
  25. Evaluating the Economic and Environmental Impacts of a Global GMO Ban
    , , (2016)
  26. Advances of transgenic Bt-crops in insect pest management: An overview
    , , (2016)
  27. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects (2016)
    (2016)
  28. Crop and food development through modern biotechnology techniques in Central America
    (2016)
  29. GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-2014
    , (2016)
  30. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2015
    (2016)
  31. Risk assessment of Bt crops on the non-target plant-associated insects and soil organisms
    , , , , , , , (2016)
  32. Global Adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Challenges for the Public Sector.
    , , , , , , , , , , , (2016)
  33. Global Pipeline of GM Crops out to 2020
    , , (2016)
  34. Global economic, environmental and health benefits from GM crop adoption
    , , (2015)
  35. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology
    , , , , , (2015)
  36. The development and status of Bt rice in China
    , , , , (2015)
  37. The Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bt Transgenics on Parasitoids during Biological Control
    , (2015)
  38. Food in a future of 10 billion
    (2015)
  39. Trends in Global Approvals of Biotech Crops (1992–2014)
    , , (2015)
  40. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops
    , , , , (2015)
  41. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (gm) crop use 1996-2013: impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions
    , (2015)
  42. GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-2013
    , (2015)
  43. Transgenic crops with an improved resistance to biotic stresses. A review
    , (2015)
  44. Global Income and Production Impacts of Using GM Crop Technology 1996–2013
    , (2015)
  45. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges
    , (2015)
  46. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2014
    (2015)
  47. Agricultural Biotechnology – An Opportunity to Feed a World of Ten Billion
    , (2014)
  48. Weed control changes and genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops in the USA 1996-2012
    (2014)
  49. Yield and economic performance of the use of GM cotton worldwide over time : A review and meta-analysis
    , , , , , (2014)
  50. A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops
    , (2014)
  51. The impact of possible climate changes on developing countries: The needs for plants tolerant to abiotic stresses
    , , (2014)
  52. Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S.
    (2014)
  53. GM Science Update – A report to the Council for Science and Technology
    (2014)
  54. Planting the future: opportunities and challenges for using crop genetic improvement technologies for sustainable agriculture
    (2013)
  55. Modelling ex-ante the economic and environmental impacts of Genetically Modified Herbicide Tolerant maize cultivation in Europe
    , , (2014)
  56. Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States
    , , , (2014)
  57. Key global environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2012.
    , (2014)
  58. BT cotton in India…a success story for the environment and local welfare
    (2013)
  59. Herbicide resistant soybean in Argentina
    (2013)
  60. Virus resistant papaya in Hawaii – the local papaya industry’s life raft
    (2014)
  61. Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States
    , , , (2014)
  62. Economic impact of GM crops: The global income and production effects 1996–2012
    , (2014)
  63. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2013
    (2013)
  64. The socio-economic impacts of currently commercialised genetically engineered crops
    (2013)
  65. Plant biotechnology – current status and future perspectives
    (2013)
  66. Biotechnology and Agriculture
    , , , (2013)
  67. A Look at Product Development with Genetically Modified Crops: Examples from Maize
    (2013)
  68. Report of the Round Table for Biotechnology in Cotton
    (2013)
  69. The role of biofortification in the reduction of micronutrient food insecurity in developing countries
    (2013)
  70. The global income and production effects of genetically modified (GM) crops 1996–2011
    , (2013)
  71. Engineering insect-resistant crops: A review
    (2013)
  72. Global Socio-Economic and Environmental Dimensions of GM Maize Cultivation
    , (2013)
  73. Biotech crops: Imperative for achieving the Millenium Development Goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era
    , (2013)
  74. Global value of GM rice: a review of expected agronomic and consumer benefits
    , (2013)
  75. GM crops 1996-2012: A review of agronomic, environmental and socio-economic impacts
    (2013)
  76. Safety assessment of food and feed from biotechnology-derived crops employing RNA-mediated gene regulation to achieve desired traits: A scientific review
    , , , (2013)
  77. Key environmental impacts of global genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996–2011
    , (2013)
  78. Can the world afford to ignore biotechnology solutions that address food insecurity?
    , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (2013)
  79. Unintended Compositional Changes in Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: 20 Years of Research
    , (2013)
  80. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2012
    (2013)
  81. The Commercial Benefits from Crop Biotechnology in Brazil: 1996/97 – 2011/12
    (2012)
  82. Biotechnology in agriculture: Agronomic and environmental considerations and reflections based on 15 years of GM crops
    , (2012)
  83. Impact of Genetically Modified Maize on Smallholder Risk in South Africa
    , , (2012)
  84. Bt Cotton Adoption: A Double-hurdle Approach for North Indian Farmers
    , , , (2012)
  85. Biotech crops: Imperative for achieving the Millenium Development Goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era
    , (2013)
  86. Economic and Environmental Impact Transgenically Modified Cotton Comparative with Synthetic Chemicals for Insect Control
    , , (2012)
  87. Economic and agronomic impact of commercialized GM crops: a meta-analysis
    , , (2012)
  88. Transgenic Vegetable Breeding for Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits
    , (2012)
  89. The benefits of herbicide-resistant crops
    (2012)
  90. Studies on feeds from genetically modified plants (GMP) – Contributions to nutritional and safety assessment
    , (2007)
  91. Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: A literature review
    , (2012)
  92. Genetically Modified Crops: Insect Resistance
    , (2012)
  93. Toward two decades of plant biotechnology: successes, failures, and prospects. Food and Energy Security
    (2012)
  94. GM Crops: Reaping the benefits, but not in Europe – Socio-economic impacts of agricultural biotechnology
    (2012)
  95. The Design and Implementation of Insect Resistance Management Programs for Bt Crops
    , (2012)
  96. GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-2010
    , (2012)
  97. GM as a route for delivery of sustainable crop protection
    (2011)
  98. Use and Impact of Bt Maize
    , (2012)
  99. Global capture of crop biotechnology in developing world over a decade
    (2011)
  100. The potentials of agricultural biotechnology for food security and economic empowerment in Nigeria
    , (2012)
  101. Agriculture biotechnologies in developing countries: Options and opportunities in crops, forestry, livestock, fisheries and agro-industry to face the challenges of food insecurity and climate change.
    (2011)
  102. The Commercial Benefits from Crop Biotechnology in Brazil: 1996/97 to 2010/11
    (2012)
  103. Grand Challenges in Plant Biotechnology
    (2012)
  104. Coexistence of Genetically Modified Crops with Conventional and Organic Agriculture in the European Union
    (2011)
  105. Commercializing genetically modified crops under EU regulations
    , (2012)
  106. A primer for using transgenic insecticidal cotton in developing countries
    , (2009)
  107. Technological Abundance for Global Agriculture: The Role of Biotechnology
    (2012)
  108. Non-target risk assessment of Bt crops – Cry protein uptake by aphids
    , (2011)
  109. Impact of Bt Cotton, the Potential Future Benefits from Biotechnology in China and India
    , , , , (2011)
  110. Status of Biotechnology in Eastern and Central Africa
    (2011)
  111. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops:2011
    (2012)
  112. Cotton, Biotechnology, and Economic Development
    (2011)
  113. Agricultural Biotechnology: Benefits, Opportunities, and Leadership
    (2011)
  114. Agricultural biotechnology and smallholder farmers in developing countries
    , (2011)
  115. Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: A literature review
    , (2011)
  116. Preventing Hunger: Biotechnology is Key
    (2011)
  117. Modern Biotechnology—Potential Contribution and Challenges for Sustainable Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa
    (2011)
  118. Establishing a biotech-modern-agriculture for China
    , (2011)
  119. Assessment of the economic performance of GM crops worldwide
    , (2011)
  120. GM crops: Reaping the benefits, but not in Europe – Socio-economic impacts of agricultural biotechnology
    (2011)
  121. 15 Years of Genetically Modified Crops in Argentine Agriculture
    (2011)
  122. Agricultural Biotechnologies for Food Security and Sustainable Development: Options for Developing Countries and Priorities for Action by the International Community
    (2010)
  123. The income and production effects of biotech crops globally 1996-2009
    , (2011)
  124. Adoption of GMHT crops: Coexistence policy consequences in the European Union
    , (2011)
  125. Prospects for Development of Genetically Modified Cassava in Sub-Saharan Africa
    (2010)
  126. Biotechnology and food security in developing countries
    , (2010)
  127. The past, present and future of crop genetic modification.
    (2010)
  128. Risk assessment and ecological effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target organisms
    , , (2011)
  129. Plant genetics, sustainable agriculture and global food security.
    (2011)
  130. The trends and future of biotechnology crops for insect pest control
    , (2011)
  131. The impact of the EU regulatory constraint of transgenic crops on farm income.
    , (2011)
  132. The role of biotechnology in ensuring food security and sustainable agriculture
    , (2010)
  133. The role of transgenic crops in sustainable development.
    , (2011)
  134. GM crops in Ethiopia: a realistic way to increase agricultural performance?
    , (2011)
  135. Bacillus thuringiensis: a century of research, development and commercial applications
    , (2011)
  136. The economics of BT cotton production in India–a meta analysis
    (2010)
  137. Socio-economic impacts of GM crop technology: ‘second round’ impacts
    (2009)
  138. Genetically Engineering Crops for a Sustainable Agriculture
    , (2010)
  139. Agricultural Biotechnology Can Help Mitigate Climate Change
    , (2010)
  140. Sustainability of current GM crop cultivation
    , (2011)
  141. Conservation Tillage, Pesticide Use, and Biotech Crops in the U.S.A.
    , (2010)
  142. Resource-Conserving Agriculture Increases Yields in Developing Countries
    , (2006)
  143. A Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM Crops
    , (2011)
  144. Insect-resistant biotech crops and their impacts on beneficial arthropods
    , , , (2011)
  145. The Production and Price Impact of Biotech Crops
    , (2010)
  146. GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996- 2009
    , (2011)
  147. The social-environmental benefits of biotechnology in Brazil: 1996/97 to 2009/10
    (2011)
  148. Bacillus thuringiensis: a century of research, development and commercial applications
    , (2011)
  149. Impacts of GM crops on biodiversity
    (2011)
  150. Bacillus thuringiensis as a specific, safe, and effective tool for insect pest control.
    , , , , (2007)
  151. Does the use of transgenic plants diminish or promote biodiversity?
    (2010)
  152. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2010
    (2010)
  153. Intellectual property rights, private investment in research, and productivity growth in Indian agriculture
    , , (2010)
  154. Needs for and environmental risks from transgenic crops in the developing world
    (2010)
  155. Ethical arguments relevant to the use of GM crops
    (2010)
  156. Food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition: necessary policy and technology changes.
    (2010)
  157. Benefits of genetically modified crops for the poor: household income, nutrition, and health
    (2010)
  158. Genetically modified myths and realities
    (NULL)
  159. GMO foods and crops: Africa’s choice
    (2010)
  160. Inactivation of allergens and toxins
    (2010)
  161. Modifying agricultural crops for improved nutrition
    (2010)
  162. Trade and commerce in improved crops and food: an essay on food security.
    (2010)
  163. Knowledge and technologies for sustainable intensification of food production.”
    (2010)
  164. The past, present and future of crop genetic modification
    (2010)
  165. Transgenic crops coping with water scarcity
    , (2010)
  166. Genetic engineering compared to natural genetic variations.
    (2010)
  167. Economic impacts of policies affecting crop biotechnology and trade
    (2010)
  168. Coexistence of genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize: making the point on scientific evidence and commercial experience
    (2006)
  169. Igniting Agricultural Innovation
    , (2009)
  170. Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification
    , , (2010)
  171. Emerging Trends in Indian Agriculture: What Can We Learn from these?
    (2009)
  172. The Economic Benefits of Agricultural Biotechnology in Brazil: 1996 – 2009
    (2010)
  173. Peer-reviewed surveys indicate positive impact of commercialized GM crops
    (2010)
  174. The humanitarian impact of plant biotechnology: recent breakthroughs vs bottlenecks for adoption
    , (2009)
  175. Reaping the benefits: Science and the sustainable intensification of global agriculture
    (2009)
  176. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2009 The first fourteen years, 1996 to 2009
    (2009)
  177. The Economics of Genetically Modified Crops
    (2009)
  178. Projected Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies for Fruits & Vegetables in the Philipines and Indonesia
    , (2009)
  179. World Development Report 2010 – Development and Climate Change
    (2009)
  180. The role of biotechnology for agricultural sustainability in Africa
    (2008)
  181. Economic impacts of GM crops in Australia
    , , (2008)
  182. Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist’s Analysis of the Issues (Part I)
    (2008)
  183. Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and biological control.
    , , (2006)
  184. Application for the placing on the market of glyphosate tolerant genetically modified cotton GHB614, for food and feed uses, import and processing
    (2009)
  185. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2008
    (2008)
  186. Bioengineered Crops as Tools for International Development: Opportunities and Strategic Considerations
    , (2008)
  187. Comparing the performance of official and unofficial genetically modified cotton in India
    , , (2005)
  188. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2006 (ISAAA Briefs No 35)
    (2006)
  189. Crop Biotechnology and the Future of Food:A Scientific Assessment
    (2005)
  190. Agricultural biotechnology in developing countries: a briefing paper for Sida
    , (2004)
  191. The Payoffs to Agricultural Biotechnology: An Assessment of the Evidence
    , , (2002)
  192. The economic impacts of biotechnology-based technological innovations. ESA Working Paper No. 04-08.
    (2004)
  193. The state of food and agriculture. Agricultural biotechnology: meeting the needs of the poor?
    (2004)