Global Benefits

Global Benefit References Listed Below

Global Overview

Information extracted from: ISAAA Brief 54: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2018 (Executive SummaryPress Release and Infographic)

On the 23rd year of commercialization of biotech/GM crops in 2018, 26 countries grew 191.7 million hectares of biotech crops – an increase of 1.9 million hectares (4.7 million acres) or 1% from 189.8 million hectares in 2017. Except for the 2015 adoption, this is the 22nd series of increases every single year; and notably 12 of the 18 years with double-digit growth rates. This makes biotech crops the fastest adopted crop technology in recent times. An accumulated 2.5 billion hectares or 6.3 billion acres were achieved in 23 years (1996-2018) of biotech crop commercialization

The average biotech crop adoption rate in the top five biotech crop-growing countries increased in 2018 to reach close to saturation, with USA at 93.3% (average for soybeans, maize, and canola adoption), Brazil (93%), Argentina (~100%), Canada (92.5%), and India (95%). Expansion of biotech crop areas in these countries would be through immediate approval and commercialization of new biotech crops and traits to target problems related to climate change and the emergence of new pests and diseases.

The four major biotech crops — soybeans, maize, cotton, and canola — in decreasing area, were the most adopted biotech crops by the 26 countries. Based on the 2017 FAO global crop area for individual crops, 78% of soybeans, 76% of cotton, 30% of maize, and 29% of canola were biotech crops in 2018.

Biotech crops however have expanded beyond the big four (maize, soybeans, cotton, and canola) to give more choices for many of the world’s consumers and food producers. These biotech crops include alfalfa, sugar beets, papaya, squash, eggplant, potatoes, and apples, all of which are already in the market.

Various trait combinations have also been also approved including high oleic acid canola, isoxaflutole herbicide tolerant (HT) cotton, stacked herbicide tolerant and high oleic acid soybean, HT and salt tolerant soybean, IR sugarcane, and biotech maize with various IR/HT combinations in stack.

The stacked traits with insect resistance and herbicide tolerance increased by 4% and covered 42% of the global area, a testimony to farmers’ adherence to smart agriculture with no till and reduced insecticide use. Herbicide tolerance in soybeans, canola, maize, alfalfa, and cotton has consistently been the dominant trait, which in 2018 covered 46% of the global area – a decrease of 1% compared to 2017.

The ISAAA report also highlighted the following key findings:

  • The top 5 countries with the largest area of biotech crops planted (USA, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, and India) collectively occupied 91% of the global biotech crop area.
  • Biotech soybeans reached the highest adoption worldwide, covering 50% of the global biotech crop area.
  • The area of biotech crops with stacked traits continued to increase and occupied 42% of the global biotech area.
  • Farmers in 10 Latin American countries planted 79.4 million hectares of biotech crops.
  • Nine countries in Asia and the Pacific planted 19.13 million hectares of biotech crops.
  • In Asia, Indonesia planted for the first time a drought tolerant sugarcane developed through a public (University of Jember) and private (Ajinomoto Ltd.) partnership.
  • The Kingdom of eSwatini (formerly Swaziland) joined South Africa and Sudan in planting biotech crops in Africa, with the introduction of IR cotton. Nigeria, Ethiopia, Kenya and Malawi granted approvals for planting IR cotton opening Africa to biotech crop adoption.
  • In Europe, Spain and Portugal continued to adopt biotech maize to control European corn borer.
  • More area planted to biotech crops for farmer and consumer needs included potatoes with non-bruising, non-browning, reduced acrylamide and late blight resistant traits; non-browning apples; insect resistant eggplant; and low lignin alfalfa, among others.
  • New crops and trait combinations in farmer fields include insect resistant and drought tolerant sugarcane; high oleic acid canola and safflower.
  • Various food, feed and processing approvals for Golden Rice, Bt rice, herbicide tolerant cotton, low gossypol cotton, among others.
  • Cultivation approvals for planting in 2019 include new generation herbicide tolerant cotton and soybean, low gossypol cotton, RR and low lignin alfalfa, omega-3 canola, and IR cowpea, among others.

Key reference:

Brief 54: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2018

The CropLife International Biotechnology Database – Global Benefits

This database contains 239 scientific studies providing an overview of the impacts of agricultural biotechnology.

  1. The effect of Bt crops on soil invertebrates: a systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis
    (2020) Krogh PH, Kostov K, Damgaard CF
  2. Major Achievements of Plant Biotechnology in Crop Improvements
    (2020) Babiye B, Haile G, Adamu M
  3. Incorporating Biotechnology for Sustainable Farming: Case Study on Developing and Developed Country (Indonesia-Australia)
    (2020) Hervani A
  4. Biofortification to Improve Nutrition: A Review
    (2020) Agrawal N, Upadhyay P, Tigadi SB
  5. Brief 55: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2019
    (2020) ISAAA
  6. Role of New Plant Breeding Technologies for Food Security and Sustainable Agricultural Development
    (2020) Qaim M
  7. Does long‐term Bt rice planting pose risks to spider communities and their capacity to control planthoppers?
    (2020) Lu Z, Dang C, wang F, Liu Z, Chen J, Wang Y, Yao H, Fang Q, Peng Y, Gatehouse AMR, Hua H, Ye G
  8. Genetically modified organisms and food security in Southern Africa: conundrum and discourse
    (2020) Muzhinji N, Ntuli V
  9. GM crop technology use 1996-2018: farm income and production impacts
    (2020) Brookes G, Barfoot P
  10. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996–2018: impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions
    (2020) Brookes G, Barfoot P
  11. Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S
    (2020) USDA
  12. Recommendations for Assessing Human Dietary Exposure to Newly Expressed Proteins in Genetically Modified Crops
    (2020) Mathesium CA, Sauve-Ciencewicki A, Anderson J, Cleveland C, Fleming C, Frierdich GE, Goodwin L, Grunenwald M, Laporte F, Lipscomb EA., Oberdoerfer R, Petrick JS, Bauman PA
  13. Genetic strategies for improving crop yields
    (2019) Bailey-Serres J, Parker JE, Ainsworth EA, Oldroyd GED, Schroeder JI
  14. Grain Yield Increase – a Role for Genetic Modification?
    (2019) Beyer P
  15. The human health benefits from GM crops
    (2020) Smyth SJ
  16. Regulation of Synthetic Biology: Developments Under the Convention on Biological Diversity and Its Protocols
    (2020) Keiper F, Atanassova A
  17. Bt Brinjal in Bangladesh: The First Genetically Engineered Food Crop in a Developing Country
    (2019) Shelton AM, Hossain J, Paranjape V, Prodhan ZH, Azad AK, Majumder R, Sarwer SH, Hossain A
  18. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2018
    (2019) ISAAA
  19. Responses of soil enzymatic activities to transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops – A global meta-analysis
    (2019) Li Z, Cui J, Mi Z, Tian D, Wang J, Ma Z, Wang B, Chen HYH, Niu S
  20. Genetically engineered crops help support conservation biological control
    (2019) Romeis J, Naranjo SE, Meissle M, Shelton AM
  21. Global Status of Genetically Modified Crops and Its Commercialization
    (2019) Chaudhary G, Singh SK
  22. Genetically engineered crops help support conservation biological control
    (2019) Romeis J, Naranjo SE, Meissle M, Shelton AM
  23. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review
    (2018) de Vos CJ, Swanenburg M
  24. Farm Finance and Conservation
    (2018) Monast M, Sands L, Grafton A
  25. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops in 2017: Biotech Crop Adoption Surges as Economic Benefits Accumulate in 22 Years
    (2018) James C
  26. Farm income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996–2016
    (2018) Brookes G, Barfoot P
  27. Contributions of biotechnology to meeting future food and environmental security needs
    (2018) Gartland KMA, Gartland JS
  28. Biotech crop planting resumes high adoption in 2016
    (2018) Aldemita RR, Hautea RA
  29. The influence of regular and genetically modified soybeans on postnatal development of rats
    (2018) Omelchenko NN, Dronik GV, Winkler IA, Rogozynskyi MS, Kucheriava VA
  30. Impact of genetically engineered maize on agronomic, environmental and toxicological traits: a meta-analysis of 21 years of field data
    (2018) Pellegrino E, Bedini S, Nuti M, Ercoli L
  31. The contribution of glyphosate to agriculture and potential impact of restrictions on use at the global level
    (2017) Brookes G, Taheripour F, Tyner WE
  32. Biotechnology for Farmers Welfare and Poverty Reduction: Technologies, Impact and Policy Framework
    (2017) Chandrasekhara RN
  33. Food and Feed Safety of Genetically Engineered Food Crops
    (2017) Delaney B, Goodman RE, Ladics GS
  34. Society of Toxicology – Food and Feed Safety of Genetically Engineered Food Crops
  35. Food and Feed Safety of Genetically Engineered Food Crops
    (2017) Delaney B, Goodman RE, Ladics GS
  36. Future threats to biodiversity and pathways to their prevention
    (2017) Tilman D, Clark M, Williams DR, Kimmel K, Polasky S, Packer C
  37. An overview of agriculture, nutrition and fortification, supplementation and biofortification: Golden Rice as an example for enhancing micronutrient intake
    (2017) Dubock A
  38. An overview of the last 10 years of crop safety research
    (2013) Nicolia A, Manzo A, Veronesi F, Rosellini D
  39. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts, New Phytologist 208:13–19.
    (2015) Patron NJ, Orzaez D, Marillonnet S, Warzecha H, Matthewman C, Youles M, Raitskin O, Leveau A, Rogers C, Smith A, Hibberd J, Webb AA, Locke J, Schornack S, Ajioka J, Baulcombe DC, Zipfel C, Kamoun S, Jones JD, Kuhn H, Robatzek S, Van Esse HP, Sanders D, Oldroyd G, Martin C, Field R, O'Connor S, Fox S, Wulff B, Miller B, Breakspear A, Radhakrishnan G, Delaux PM, Loque D, Granell A, Tissier A, Shih P, Brutnell TP, Quick WP, Rischer H, Fraser PD, Aharoni A, Raines C, South PF, Ané JM, Hamberger BR, Langdale J, Stougaard J, Bouwmeester H, Udvardi M, Murray JA, Ntoukakis V, Schäfer P, Denby K, Edwards K, Osbourn A, Haseloff J
  40. Future Prospects for Industrial Biotechnology
    (2011) OECD
  41. Ecological impacts of Bt transgenic cabbage expressing Cry1Ac1 protein on non-target arthropod species
    (2017) Kim Y-J
  42. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Environment
    (2016) Gupta R, Singh RL
  43. The allergenicity of genetically modified foods from genetically engineered crops: A narrative and systematic review
    (2017) Dunn SE, Vicini JL, Glenn KC, Fleischer DM, Greenhawt MJ
  44. Evaluation of phenotype stability and ecological risk of a genetically engineered alga in open pond production
    (2017) Szjka SJ, Mandal S, Schoepp NG, Tyler BM, Yohn CB, Poon YS, Villareal S, Burkhart MD, Shurin JB
  45. GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-2015
    (2017) Brookes G, Barfoot P
  46. Farm income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996–2015
    (2017) Brookes G, Barfoot P
  47. Characterization of scientific studies usually cited as evidence of adverse effects of GM food/feed.
    (2017) Sánchez MA, Parrott WA
  48. Assessing the potential economic benefits to farmers from various GM crops becoming available in the European Union by 2025: Results from an expert survey
    (2017) Jones PJ, McFarlane ID, Park JR, Tranter RB
  49. Transgenic Strategies for Enhancement of Nematode Resistance in Plants
    (2017) Ali MA, Azeem F, Abbas A, Joyia FA, Li H, Dababat AA
  50. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996–2015: Impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions
    (2017) Brookes G, Barfoot P
  51. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2016
    (2017) James C
  52. The social and economic impact of biofortification through genetic modification
    (2017) De Steur H, Demont M, Gellynck X, Stein AJ
  53. The Socio-economic Impacts of GM Cotton in Burkina Faso: Does Farm Structure Affect How Benefits are Distributed?
    (2016) Vitale J, Vognan G, Vitale PP
  54. Evaluation of Economic, Land Use, and Land-use Emission Impacts of Substituting Non-GMO Crops for GMO in the United States
    (2016) Taheripour F, Mahaffey H, Tyner WE
  55. Does Bt rice pose risks to non-target arthropods? Results of a meta-analysis in China
    (2017) Dang C, Lu Z, Wang L, Chang X, wang F, Yao H, Peng Y, Stanley D, Ye G
  56. The success story of Bt cotton in Burkina Faso: a role model for sustainable cotton production in other cotton-growing countries?
    (2016) Pertry I, Sanou IRE, Speelman S, Ingelbrecht I
  57. Do genetically modified plants affect adversely on soil microbial communities?
    (2016) Zheng-jun G, Shun-bao L, Yan-lin H, Zheng-Ping G, Biao L, Wei W
  58. Genetically modified organisms: a solution to food security and environment
    (2016) Furqan K, Asim H
  59. The Adoption of Genetically Engineered Alfalfa, Canola and Sugarbeets in the United States
    (2016) Fernandez-Cornejo J, Wechsler SJ, Milkove D
  60. The Future of Genetically Modified Crops: Reflections on the NAS Report
    (2016) Kumar A
  61. The socioeconomics of genetically modified biofortified crops: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    (2016) De Steur H, Wesana J, Blancquaert D, Van Der Straeten D
  62. Twenty Years of GM crops in Argentine Agriculture
    (2016) Trigo EJ
  63. Bt cotton in India, pesticide use and environmental impact in India
    (2016) Saravanan S
  64. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review
    (2016) Chavarriaga-Aguirre P, Brand A, Medina A, Prias M, Escobar R, Martinez J, Diaz P, Lopez C, Roca WM, Tohme J
  65. Biotechnology: A Growing Field in the Developing World
    (2016) CAS-TWAS CoEBio
  66. Agricultural biotechnology and crop productivity: macro-level evidences on contribution of Bt cotton in India
    (2016) Srivastava SK, Kolady D
  67. Development and Adoption of Bt Cotton in India : Economic, Environmental and Health Issues
    (2016) Mohanasundaram V
  68. GMOs and the issue of coexistence in Italy
    (2016) Covino D
  69. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects (2016)
  70. The Adoption and Impact of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops in Australia: 20 years’ experience
    (2016) Brookes G
  71. Success of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Fiction or reality?
    (2016) Ali Noman A, Bashir R, Aqeel M, Anwer S, Iftikhar W, Zainab M, Zafar S, Khan S, Islam W, Adnan M
  72. Evaluating the Economic and Environmental Impacts of a Global GMO Ban
    (2016) Mahaffey H, Taheripour F, Tyner WE
  73. Advances of transgenic Bt-crops in insect pest management: An overview
    (2016) Mabubu JI, Nawaz M, Hua H
  74. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects (2016)
    (2016) National Academy of Sciences Engineering Medicine
  75. Crop and food development through modern biotechnology techniques in Central America
    (2016) Garro-Monge G
  76. GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-2014
    (2016) Brookes G, Barfoot P
  77. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2015
  78. Risk assessment of Bt crops on the non-target plant-associated insects and soil organisms
    (2016) , , , , , , ,
  79. Global Adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Challenges for the Public Sector.
    (2016) , , , , , , , , , , ,
  80. Global Pipeline of GM Crops out to 2020
    (2016) , ,
  81. Global economic, environmental and health benefits from GM crop adoption
    (2015) , ,
  82. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology
    (2015) , , , , ,
  83. The development and status of Bt rice in China
    (2015) , , , ,
  84. The Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bt Transgenics on Parasitoids during Biological Control
    (2015) ,
  85. Food in a future of 10 billion
  86. Trends in Global Approvals of Biotech Crops (1992–2014)
    (2015) , ,
  87. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops
    (2015) , , , ,
  88. Environmental impacts of genetically modified (gm) crop use 1996-2013: impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions
    (2015) ,
  89. GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-2013
    (2015) ,
  90. Transgenic crops with an improved resistance to biotic stresses. A review
    (2015) ,
  91. Global Income and Production Impacts of Using GM Crop Technology 1996–2013
    (2015) ,
  92. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges
    (2015) ,
  93. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2014
  94. Agricultural Biotechnology – An Opportunity to Feed a World of Ten Billion
    (2014) ,
  95. Weed control changes and genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops in the USA 1996-2012
  96. Yield and economic performance of the use of GM cotton worldwide over time : A review and meta-analysis
    (2014) , , , , ,
  97. A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops
    (2014) ,
  98. The impact of possible climate changes on developing countries: The needs for plants tolerant to abiotic stresses
    (2014) , ,
  99. Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S.
  100. GM Science Update – A report to the Council for Science and Technology
  101. Planting the future: opportunities and challenges for using crop genetic improvement technologies for sustainable agriculture
  102. Modelling ex-ante the economic and environmental impacts of Genetically Modified Herbicide Tolerant maize cultivation in Europe
    (2014) , ,
  103. Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States
    (2014) , , ,
  104. Key global environmental impacts of genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2012.
    (2014) ,
  105. BT cotton in India…a success story for the environment and local welfare
  106. Herbicide resistant soybean in Argentina
  107. Virus resistant papaya in Hawaii – the local papaya industry’s life raft
  108. Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States
    (2014) , , ,
  109. Economic impact of GM crops: The global income and production effects 1996–2012
    (2014) ,
  110. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2013
  111. The socio-economic impacts of currently commercialised genetically engineered crops
  112. Plant biotechnology – current status and future perspectives
  113. Biotechnology and Agriculture
    (2013) , , ,
  114. A Look at Product Development with Genetically Modified Crops: Examples from Maize
  115. Report of the Round Table for Biotechnology in Cotton
  116. The role of biofortification in the reduction of micronutrient food insecurity in developing countries
  117. The global income and production effects of genetically modified (GM) crops 1996–2011
    (2013) ,
  118. Engineering insect-resistant crops: A review
  119. Global Socio-Economic and Environmental Dimensions of GM Maize Cultivation
    (2013) ,
  120. Biotech crops: Imperative for achieving the Millenium Development Goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era
    (2013) ,
  121. Global value of GM rice: a review of expected agronomic and consumer benefits
    (2013) ,
  122. GM crops 1996-2012: A review of agronomic, environmental and socio-economic impacts
    (2013) Morse S, Mannion AM
  123. Safety assessment of food and feed from biotechnology-derived crops employing RNA-mediated gene regulation to achieve desired traits: A scientific review
    (2013) , , ,
  124. Key environmental impacts of global genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996–2011
    (2013) ,
  125. Can the world afford to ignore biotechnology solutions that address food insecurity?
    (2013) , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
  126. Unintended Compositional Changes in Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: 20 Years of Research
    (2013) ,
  127. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2012
  128. The Commercial Benefits from Crop Biotechnology in Brazil: 1996/97 – 2011/12
  129. Biotechnology in agriculture: Agronomic and environmental considerations and reflections based on 15 years of GM crops
    (2012) ,
  130. Impact of Genetically Modified Maize on Smallholder Risk in South Africa
    (2012) , ,
  131. Bt Cotton Adoption: A Double-hurdle Approach for North Indian Farmers
    (2012) , , ,
  132. Biotech crops: Imperative for achieving the Millenium Development Goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era
    (2013) ,
  133. Economic and Environmental Impact Transgenically Modified Cotton Comparative with Synthetic Chemicals for Insect Control
    (2012) , ,
  134. Economic and agronomic impact of commercialized GM crops: a meta-analysis
    (2012) , ,
  135. Transgenic Vegetable Breeding for Nutritional Quality and Health Benefits
    (2012) ,
  136. The benefits of herbicide-resistant crops
  137. Studies on feeds from genetically modified plants (GMP) – Contributions to nutritional and safety assessment
    (2007) Flachowsky G, et al.
  138. Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: A literature review
    (2012) Snell C, et al.
  139. Genetically Modified Crops: Insect Resistance
    (2012) Karthikeyan A, et al.
  140. Toward two decades of plant biotechnology: successes, failures, and prospects. Food and Energy Security
  141. GM Crops: Reaping the benefits, but not in Europe – Socio-economic impacts of agricultural biotechnology
  142. The Design and Implementation of Insect Resistance Management Programs for Bt Crops
    (2012) ,
  143. GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-2010
    (2012) ,
  144. GM as a route for delivery of sustainable crop protection
  145. Use and Impact of Bt Maize
    (2012) ,
  146. Global capture of crop biotechnology in developing world over a decade
  147. The potentials of agricultural biotechnology for food security and economic empowerment in Nigeria
    (2012) ,
  148. Agriculture biotechnologies in developing countries: Options and opportunities in crops, forestry, livestock, fisheries and agro-industry to face the challenges of food insecurity and climate change.
  149. The Commercial Benefits from Crop Biotechnology in Brazil: 1996/97 to 2010/11
  150. Grand Challenges in Plant Biotechnology
  151. Coexistence of Genetically Modified Crops with Conventional and Organic Agriculture in the European Union
  152. Commercializing genetically modified crops under EU regulations
    (2012) ,
  153. A primer for using transgenic insecticidal cotton in developing countries
    (2009) Showalter AM, et al.
  154. Technological Abundance for Global Agriculture: The Role of Biotechnology
  155. Non-target risk assessment of Bt crops – Cry protein uptake by aphids
    (2011) ,
  156. Impact of Bt Cotton, the Potential Future Benefits from Biotechnology in China and India
    (2011) , , , ,
  157. Status of Biotechnology in Eastern and Central Africa
  158. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops:2011
  159. Cotton, Biotechnology, and Economic Development
  160. Agricultural Biotechnology: Benefits, Opportunities, and Leadership
  161. Agricultural biotechnology and smallholder farmers in developing countries
    (2011) ,
  162. Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: A literature review
    (2011) Snell C, et al.
  163. Preventing Hunger: Biotechnology is Key
  164. Modern Biotechnology – Potential Contribution and Challenges for Sustainable Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa
  165. Establishing a biotech-modern-agriculture for China
    (2011) Zhang Z, et al.
  166. Assessment of the economic performance of GM crops worldwide
    (2011) Kaphengst T, et al.
  167. GM crops: Reaping the benefits, but not in Europe – Socio-economic impacts of agricultural biotechnology
  168. 15 Years of Genetically Modified Crops in Argentine Agriculture
  169. Agricultural Biotechnologies for Food Security and Sustainable Development: Options for Developing Countries and Priorities for Action by the International Community
  170. The income and production effects of biotech crops globally 1996-2009
    (2011) ,
  171. Adoption of GMHT crops: Coexistence policy consequences in the European Union
    (2011) ,
  172. Prospects for Development of Genetically Modified Cassava in Sub-Saharan Africa
  173. Biotechnology and food security in developing countries
    (2010) ,
  174. The past, present and future of crop genetic modification.
  175. Risk assessment and ecological effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target organisms
    (2011) , ,
  176. Plant genetics, sustainable agriculture and global food security.
  177. The trends and future of biotechnology crops for insect pest control
    (2011) ,
  178. The impact of the EU regulatory constraint of transgenic crops on farm income.
    (2011) Park JR, et al.
  179. The role of biotechnology in ensuring food security and sustainable agriculture
    (2010) ,
  180. The role of transgenic crops in sustainable development.
    (2011) Park JR, et al.
  181. GM crops in Ethiopia: a realistic way to increase agricultural performance?
    (2011) ,
  182. Bacillus thuringiensis: a century of research, development and commercial applications
    (2011) Sanahuja G, et al.
  183. The economics of BT cotton production in India–a meta analysis
  184. Socio-economic impacts of GM crop technology: ‘second round’ impacts
  185. Genetically Engineering Crops for a Sustainable Agriculture
    (2010) ,
  186. Agricultural Biotechnology Can Help Mitigate Climate Change
    (2010) ,
  187. Sustainability of current GM crop cultivation
    (2011) Franke AC, et al.
  188. Conservation Tillage, Pesticide Use, and Biotech Crops in the U.S.A.
    (2010) Fernandez-Cornejo J, et al.
  189. Resource-Conserving Agriculture Increases Yields in Developing Countries
    (2006) Pretty JN, et al.
  190. A Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM Crops
    (2011) Finger R, et al.
  191. Insect-resistant biotech crops and their impacts on beneficial arthropods
    (2011) , , ,
  192. The Production and Price Impact of Biotech Crops
    (2010) Brookes G, et al.
  193. GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996- 2009
    (2011) ,
  194. The social-environmental benefits of biotechnology in Brazil: 1996/97 to 2009/10
  195. Bacillus thuringiensis: a century of research, development and commercial applications
    (2011) Sanahuja G, et al.
  196. Impacts of GM crops on biodiversity
  197. Bacillus thuringiensis as a specific, safe, and effective tool for insect pest control.
    (2007) , , , ,
  198. Does the use of transgenic plants diminish or promote biodiversity?
  199. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2010
  200. Intellectual property rights, private investment in research, and productivity growth in Indian agriculture
    (2010) , ,
  201. Needs for and environmental risks from transgenic crops in the developing world
  202. Ethical arguments relevant to the use of GM crops
  203. Food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition: necessary policy and technology changes.
  204. Benefits of genetically modified crops for the poor: household income, nutrition, and health
  205. Genetically modified myths and realities
  206. GMO foods and crops: Africa’s choice
  207. Inactivation of allergens and toxins
  208. Modifying agricultural crops for improved nutrition
  209. Trade and commerce in improved crops and food: an essay on food security.
  210. Knowledge and technologies for sustainable intensification of food production.”
  211. The past, present and future of crop genetic modification
  212. Transgenic crops coping with water scarcity
    (2010) ,
  213. Genetic engineering compared to natural genetic variations.
  214. Economic impacts of policies affecting crop biotechnology and trade
  215. Coexistence of genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize: making the point on scientific evidence and commercial experience
  216. Igniting Agricultural Innovation
    (2009) ,
  217. Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification
    (2010) , ,
  218. Emerging Trends in Indian Agriculture: What Can We Learn from these?
  219. Peer-reviewed surveys indicate positive impact of commercialized GM crops
  220. The humanitarian impact of plant biotechnology: recent breakthroughs vs bottlenecks for adoption
    (2009) Farre G, et al.
  221. Reaping the benefits: Science and the sustainable intensification of global agriculture
  222. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2009 The first fourteen years, 1996 to 2009
  223. The Economics of Genetically Modified Crops
  224. Projected Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies for Fruits & Vegetables in the Philipines and Indonesia
    (2009) ,
  225. World Development Report 2010 – Development and Climate Change
  226. The role of biotechnology for agricultural sustainability in Africa
  227. Economic impacts of GM crops in Australia
    (2008) , ,
  228. Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist’s Analysis of the Issues (Part I)
  229. Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and biological control.
    (2006) , ,
  230. Application for the placing on the market of glyphosate tolerant genetically modified cotton GHB614, for food and feed uses, import and processing
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